The third quartile of a novel is also commonly called the Attack. In this part the hero transforms from passive into active and runs towards the issue at hand trying to make sense of it and resolve it.
At around 62% the second pinch point takes place. Just like the first pinch point it has to depict the antagonistic force directly. It cannot be filtered through the protagonists’ perception. Of course it also has to be more dramatic in comparison to the first pinch point. This is when the hero begins to truly unravel.
It is crucial to note that while the main character is active in the third quartile his/her actions are often incorrect in solving the problem at hand and often get him/her into deeper waters.
The darkest point comes somewhere between 70 to 75% where the hero feels likes there is no way of solving the riddle/winning his love interest/overcoming the evil/changing for the better. In order to make this moment even more dramatic the protagonist if often deserted by friends and family. All by himself/herself the depressed protagonist feels like there is absolutely no way that he/she can come out of the tribulation.
Finally part three wraps up with the second plot point at 75%. Important information is inserted here, one that ultimately helps the protagonist to fight the antagonistic force. It is important to highlight that this information cannot give away the ending or resolve the main issue at hand rather it is a hint. The hint shouldn’t be “too easy” since you still have another quartile of the book left. In fact it is in the fourth quartile that the protagonist properly understands the meaning of the information provided at the second plot point and is able to put it to use. Finally, the hint given at 75% needs to fit in with the prior rules/guidelines of the universe the novel is set in, meaning for example that in the fantasy genre there shouldn’t be a sudden discovery of new powers that hadn’t been foreshadowed previously.
The next blog post will focus on part four – climax and resolution of your novel.
This entry focuses on the second part or 25 to 50% of your book, also called the Response.
Let’s examine first how the second part would play out in a romance novel. In the second quartile the protagonists address their interest in each other. Despite initially making some progress and spending time together they ultimately scare each other away or aggravate each other.
Everything seems to be going rosy until the first pinch point, which takes place 37.5% into the novel story. At this point the main antagonistic force becomes visible, which in romance novels is often some internal conflict (e.g. trust issues, jealousy, addiction, low self-esteem) but can also be a threat posed by a third party, particularly in the suspense and paranormal romance genre.
Antagonist= person/force against main character
It is important to establish clearly for the reader how the threat influences the relationship between the main characters. Does it bring them together or pull them apart, why and how?
The end of part two is marked by the midpoint. Externally, there should be visible signs of commitment that the lovers have made. In contrast, internally the author should demonstrated the changes that have not taken place yet but are necessary if the relationship is to work.
Overall, the second quartile has more of an up-beat vibe that is until the antagonistic force shows up at the first pinch point. The midpoint raises the stakes for the protagonist and also introduces new information that changes the behavior and awareness of the main character and reader.
It is important to note that the main character is not heroic yet. In fact he/she is rather passive in the second part, choosing to retreat and analyze the situation.
While this might not be the most exciting part to write or read, it is very important. Both goals and stakes of the story should be strengthened and the tension can’t decrease. The first pinch point helps to inject an element of drama into this part.
Even though the hero/heroine is rather passive it is important to show their commitment to the theme of the book. The reader should understand the goal and the motivation of the protagonist and receive at the very least an inkling as to who the antagonist will be or the main obstacles in the way of the protagonist.
As your write this part, ensure that all chapters are like links in a bracelet fitting tightly together, their sequence making sense. Furthermore, establish the purpose of each chapter. Every single chapter and scene for that matter, needs to have a unique purpose, it can’t be duplicated.
For example if you have two chapters that each feature your protagonist going on a date with Mr. X, they can’t be both just to demonstrate how much the protagonist likes Mr. X. The first one can show her affection, while the second could focus on him requiting, or not, these feelings.
I hope this entry is helpful for you when you write your second part. While this part might not be the most exciting one, it is essential for a good novel. An author needs to ensure that every single part, chapter and scenes is “the good stuff” so that the reader doesn’t abandon ship.
As discussed in my previous post your novel should be split in four equal parts. That means that each quartile should have roughly the same amount of words, pages and chapters. It might be tempting to rush part 1, especially for those writers, who have gotten rejections or negative feedback focused on their story’s slow pace.
Yet despite this the main goal of part 1 is to set-up your story. That does not mean that this part is boring or that it is primarily concerned with descriptions of places. By all means do include meaningful action and captivating dialogue, but do not plunge yet completely into the main issue of the story.
And here’s why. Before the reader is truly ready to go on a journey with your protagonist, he/she needs to be invested in them- emotionally. In order to achieve this the author needs to create empathy for the main character(s). Show what their life looks like before the big adventure begins.
Introduce important secondary characters and foreshadow the main theme of the novel. The theme is often posed as a question or statement by a secondary character to the main character.
At this point I would like to say something about likeability. While a likeable character has obvious advantages, there are many successful novels with an unlikeable character. In fact recent fairy-tale retellings have been often told from the point of the villain in the original version of the story.
These stories are told from the point of view of the villain showing the hardship early on, thus making it impossible for the reader to see him/her just as a culprit. Actually, even if your character is likeable they should have flaws, which brings me to something that your protagonist should always be, namely relatable.
When readers relate to a protagonist they find his/her actions more plausible and they root for the hero. Even though fictional books are not based on reality they should still be based on common sense. If the behavior, dialogue language or story line is too far fetched the reader will first get confused and then loose interests. Books transplant us into a wondrous world, but one that still follows certain rules and has logic to it. If it doesn’t, reader’s become overtly aware that the story is unreal, which creates a detachment.
Besides creating empathy for the protagonist, part one should also feature a hook. Ideally it would take place in the first three scenes of your book. The hook creates a question in the reader’s mind that must be answered.
Around twenty percent of the inciting incident or incitor takes place. It is something that happens to the main character, over which they have no control. Once their whole world is put upside down, it leads to a response by the protagonist, either a commitment or decision has been made, which is the point of no return and the true start of the main story.
At 25% the first plot point marks the end of part one. This is the first time when the stakes as well as obstacles of the protagonist are discernibly illustrated. Furthermore, the implication of the antagonistic force is displayed. One thing to note here is that the stakes can either be something to be gained or something to be lost by the protagonist. As an author it is pivotal to determine the stakes of each of the primary characters, even though they are not featured at this point blatantly.
Thank you for reading. The next entry will focus on Part 2 or The Response.
This post will explain in detail the main milestones of a novel on which you should focus as a reader and writer. If you are interested in finding out what else to focus on when reading please check out my earlier post Effective reading for writers.
I will upload another post soon where a particular novel is broken down by structure to show highlight in depth the main beats.
For now I will briefly outline the basic framework of a novel, each stage that should be identifiable in a fictional book. It may also be worth noting down the structure as an aide for when you are ready to write your own fiction manuscript.
20% the Inciting incident aka the Incitor: something happens that plunges the reader into the main adventure/story that the book will cover. Everything before that should really focus on familiarizing us with the world of our protagonist and creating empathy for our main character(s).
In a romance novel at this point the author hints at why the protagonists are right for each other, while at the same time displaying how they are not ready to admit it yet.
25% First plot point: at this particular point information is provided that changes what the reader and protagonist know. It also drives the behavior of the main character in part two.
In a romance novel an external event, over which the characters have no control, occurs that leads to the protagonists spending time together. Simultaneously they make a decision that suggests their romantic interest in each other.
After the first plot point our hero/heroine retreats, mulls about the new knowledge and tries to make sense of what is happening.
At around 37.5% of the novel or 3/8 of the book the first pinch point comes into play. It is a direct reminder of the main threat in the story and shouldn’t be narrated through the eyes of the protagonist.
The evil needs to show up directly and create tumult via an attack, assault, murder, break-in and etc.
It is not enough for the protagonist to merely think/worry about the antagonistic force.
For some genres it is easier to outline the big bad. In thrillers and mysteries it is often a killer on the loose, while fantasy has a super natural malicious force. If you write in the romance genre the threat can be external or internal. It is crucial to pay attention to how the pinch point affects the romantic relationship.
Now if the major antagonist in your novel is not a character or evil force but rather something internal e.g. fear of rejections, jealousy, something negative should still take place. An internal monologue of the protagonist about his/her shortcomings is not enough.
Let’s say that you write a love story and the biggest issue between the two love interests is the male protagonist’s jealousy. At the pinch point we would see the jealousy clearly displayed, through e.g. assaulting another character or another disturbing and unwarranted deed.
Part two finishes with the midpoint in which another vital piece of the puzzle is revealed that transforms our protagonist from passive to active. In the romance genre an external act where the protagonists show commitment to each other would be displayed, while internal issues would be highlighted that needed overcoming before the relationship can blossom.
If the character was rather idly in the previous part the third quartile is the time for the hero to kick into high gear. He or she will actively fight the problem or evil the story is dealing with, however without a successful resolution in sight. In fact some of the actions of the protagonist will get him/her only into deeper waters.
At 62% or 5/8 of the novel the second pinch point comes into play. Again it has to be a direct representation of the malicious force in the novel and cannot be an internal reflection of the hero. Something active has to happen. And of course the stakes are higher compared to the first pinch point. Always remember that the drama elates throughout the novel. It never decreases.
Around 70 to 75% it appears to be improbable for the protagonist to overcome the antagonist. Everything is going the wrong way; even friends and family can desert the main characters at this point.
In a romance novel an occurrence triggers dismay and the protagonists move away from each other, rather than towards each other. They are convinced that their relationship cannot be successful long-term.
The final and last critical piece of information is provided at 75%. Nothing after that point can be new knowledge. Everything that we see in Part 4 has to be foreshadowed earlier.
That doesn’t mean that hero and reader have to fully comprehend the meaning of the provided information. An example of skillful writing here would be Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets (Book 2). Harry and his friend Ron go to visit Hermione, who has been petrified and is lying in the hospital wing with a mirror and a piece of paper by her side. Both the mirror and the paper hold all the relevant clues that Harry will need in order to solve the riddle in part 4.
The resolution. The protagonist finally comes head to head with the antagonist force in the novel. Going into the situation it appears as if there is no way that he/she can win but the hero manages anyhow. Furthermore, in the final part the protagonist transforms into a selfless hero.
For example, in a Romance novel the male protagonist does not only make up and apologizes to the female protagonist but also sets things right with her brother, who had been standing between the two lovers throughout the book due to his addiction. Instead of merely salvaging his relationship with the female protagonist, the male protagonist also helps the brother to reach the decision to check himself into rehab.
Everything that takes place in part four needs to be foreshadowed. In the example above the brother would’ve displayed earlier in the book the awareness that he needs help.
To summarize when paying attention to the development of the plot of a novel, note the following parts: Incitor (20%), First Plot Point (25%), First Pinch Point (37.5%), Midpoint (50%), Second Pinch Point (62%), Crisis (70-75%), Final Plot Point (75%).
The more you become mindful of these beats in other author’s work the more natural it will be for you to insert them in your own story flow in order to get the pacing right and keep your reader interested.
Successful authors, literary agents and editors all agree that aspiring and already published authors need to read. In fact Stephen King recommends reading about seventy books per years, or a book about every four to five days.
Now this might seem excessive at first but let’s look at the reasons to understand why reading is so important to writers.
Firstly, reading expands the vocabulary and helps with improvement of writing style. Secondly it’s always easier to judge someone else’s work fairly than your own. By understanding what works in their chosen genre, good character development, effective story structure and so on, writers are able to reflect more efficiently and critically on their own work. Lastly, it is important to read to understand what direction the industry is moving into and become aware of particular trends and fads.
But what does reading a book every four days looks like in reality and how can one read in the most useful manner?
How long it takes to finish a book depends on how quick you read. Personally I find that in order to meet my twenty-five percent quota for the day I need to put aside daily three to four hours. That is a lot of time. So how do I do that? Certainly there are times where I read consciously and leisurely, perhaps while sitting on my balcony. But other days when I’m pressed for time, I have been reading in the gym while on the treadmill, during the preparation and consummation of meals and yes even while brushing my teeth. Finally, the brutal truth is that when one cuts back on TV, Internet browsing and magazine reading precious time begins to free up.
The second part of the question as how to read in a meaningful way as a writer is a bit more complex. There are certainly many paths and I encourage you to unearth the one that works best for you. Personally I like to always have a pen and two notepads with me while I read. The smaller sized notepad is used for words that I have to look up (either directly on my Kindle or if I read a printed book on one of the various downloadable dictionary apps). After familiarizing myself with the meaning,I write it down, its explanation and synonyms.
Secondly, whenever I find a sentence or passage that is particularly inspiring or astutely written, I also note it down in the smaller booklet. This serves to improve one’s personal writing style and become more aware of various word/phrase usages.
Thirdly, I ensure that I pay attention to the structure of the novel. Each novel can be broken down into four equal parts: The Set-up, The Response, The Attack and The Resolution. Particular attention should be paid to the two pinch points, the two plot points and the midpoint.
The reason why it is important to pay attention to these beats or milestones is to pace the novel and keep the reader intrigued.
Next post will focus in detail on these beats and what exactly should occur at each of them.
Once upon a time there was a novel called Twilight. It became so successful that its author Stephenie Meyer became a millionaire and was even able to sell movie rights. The first installment of the cinematic experience was released in 2008 and in turn increased the euphoria for the books. Simultaneously HBO released in 2008 the first season of True Blood, a series about vampires based on the Sookie Stackhouse novels by Charlaine Harris. (The first book Dead until Dark was published in 2001). Due to the first one being geared towards the young adult genre and the second one being part of the urban fantasy genre and featuring explicit scenes that included both sex and violence, the two series together covered all age-ranges and their desire for vampires.
Those who found Bella Swan too sulky and Eric Northman’s escapes too gory didn’t have to fret either. Their desire for vampires was fortunately fed through the super natural drama Vampire Diaries, which was also based on a book series of the same name and released by the CW in 2009.
Suddenly it felt as if one could turn into any direction only to find oneself surrounded by vampires and not just any kind but broody, enticing and gorgeous vampires that were misunderstood. Ones that were able to hang on to their humanity and debated their animalistic urges.
Bookshelves in stores were overflowing with tomes on bloodsuckers for middle graders, young adults, romance and fantasy readers.
But that all came to an end recently. The fang trend is over. Done. Finito. Readers had enough of vampires and editors won’t publish any more stories that feature them. At least that’s what one would assume if one scans articles on the Internet or visits the closest Barnes & Nobles.
Young Adult bookshelves are filled with grimly, innovative fresh takes on classical fairy tales such as Alice in Wonderland as well as stories about assassins (Throne of glass) or heroines with amazing powers (Shatter me).
If we look at fantasy bestsellers George R.R. Martin’s tomes of Game of Thrones are dominating the store landscape, while contemporary seems to be the main trend in the romance category.
And yet, in a time and age where vampires are out one has to wonder how they can be out when eBook sensation Bella Forrest has been able to stay at the top of the amazon best seller list with her series A Shade of Vampire. One that has sold over million books and released twenty-eight installments so far with no intention of slowing down.
As I write this Vampire Girl 2: Midnight Star by Karpov Kinrade (penname of a wife and husband writing team) is in the top twenty of Amazon fantasy best sellers, while Book 1 of A Shade of Vampire is both in the top ten of the Romance and young adult best seller list.
Thus, it seems that for the dedicated fang writer there is still a market out there. One that is hungry for adventure and love stories that center among the creatures of the night.
If you have just completed a vampire book or are in the middle of the writing process there is still hope. We can agree that the peak of the vampire hype has passed, but there are still new vampire books that capture a readership. Thus, vampires should not be seen as a fad but rather a timeless topic with a dedicated readership. Certain readers will doubtless grow fatigued with bloodsuckers, but some never quench their thirst and others are just getting into the taste.
The question therefore is not if there is demand for fresh vampire novels but how you will reach the audience that is still thirsty for them?
Thank you for reading. I hope you enjoyed this post.